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Research & Development

Research & Development

Research and Development (R&D) is an ongoing activity within the steel industry, addressing all stages in the lifecycle. Some useful resources relating to steel production best practice, lifecycle assessment (LCA), carbon reduction, along with case studies, guidance reports and LCA software links are laid out below.

Health and Safety

This paper by worldsteel outlines the importance of health and safety within the steel industry, outlining international best
practice and current performance of worldsteel members.

Steels contribution to a low carbon future

This paper outlines the steel industry's engagement in research and practice of low carbon manufacturing and fabrication
of steel.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

This paper outlines worldsteel's position on LCA in the steel industry.

Indirect trade in steel: definitions, methodology and application

This paper aims to define and develop methodologies, and to indicate use of indirect trade in steel. Indirect trade in steel –
exports and imports of steel in the form of steel containing manufactured goods – is a crucial issue in steel demand
estimations. Incorporating indirect trade in steel allows a more realistic picture of steel use across countries and in time.

LCA Handbook

This link provides sections from the Handbook on LCA, an operational guide to the ISO Standards for LCA and related

The following guidance reports developed through the Target Zero project deliver clear, costed advice for achieving
government targets for five building types:

  • Schools
  • Warehouses
  • Supermarkets
  • Offices
  • Mixed-Use developments

The following fact sheets can be found at

  • Advanced steel applications help to address climate change
  • Energy
  • Technology transfer
  • Breakthrough technologies
  • By-products
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle
  • Raw materials

The following case studies can be found at worldsteel case
studies use a lifecycle thinking approach to measure the potential greenhouse gas impacts from all stages of
manufacture, product use and end-of-life. The case studies demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emissions through the
use of high-performance steels. Case studies are available for:

  • Wind energy
  • Automotive steel
  • Food cans
  • Rail
  • Bridges

Other useful resources can be found at: